The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is one of the most widely distributed members of the order Carnivora, being present across the entire Northern Hemisphere including most of North America, Europe and Asia, plus parts of North Africa. The red fox originated from smaller-sized ancestors from Eurasia during the Middle Villafranchian period, and colonised North America shortly after the Wisconsin glaciation. Its tail is more than 70% of its body. Its forepaws have five toes, while their hind feet only have four. Males are called dog foxes, females vixens, juveniles are cubs, pups, or kits. The red fox is monogamous.