The reddish-brown African forest buffalo (Syncerus caffer nanus), also known as the dwarf buffalo or the Congo buffalo, is the smallest subspecies of the African buffalo. The African forest buffalo is related to the Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer), the Sudan buffalo (Syncerus caffer brachyceros), and the Nile buffalo (Syncerus caffer aequinoctialis). However, it is the only subspecies that occurs mainly in the rainforests of central and western Africa. However, African forest buffalo have much smaller horns than their savannah counterparts, which are generally crescent shaped. Short and directed backwards, they facilitate progression through the forest and are an effective defence when charging. African forest buffalo live in the rainforests of Western and Central Africa, wallowing in marshes and grazing the savannah.