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The rufous hornbill (Buceros hydrocorax), also known as Philippine hornbill and locally as kalaw (pronounced kah-lau), is a large species of hornbill endemic to the Philippines, where it occurs in primary, mature secondary and disturbed forests on 11 islands. It has three subspecies namely: Luzon Rufous Hornbill (Buceros hydrocorax hydrocorax), Visayan Rufous Hornbill (Buceros hydrocorax semigaleatus) and Mindanao Rufous Hornbill (Buceros hydrocorax mindanensis). The bill of the nominate subspecies is all-red, while the bills of the subspecies semigaleatus and mindanensis are pale yellow on the distal half. The rufous hornbill is sometimes called “the clock of the mountains” because of its periodic noontime call.
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