The vermilion flycatcher (Pyrocephalus obscurus) is named after its bright vermilion-red colour – vermilion has historically been used to describe a certain pigment made from the red-orange mineral cinnabar. The Latin name means “fire-headed ruby”. The male has a bright red crown that fluffs up when it defends its territory, it often lays flat when the bird is non-threatened. It also has bright red chest and underparts, with brownish wings and tail. The female has similar wings, back, tails, and heads, but has a white breast and light blush underparts — it can be confused with Say's phoebe. (See Say's Phoebe.) The vermilion flycatcher is native to the southwestern USA, Mexico, and Central America.